Cooperative Program on Potential Productivity of the Pine in Brazil

Currently, there are around 2 million hectares of Pines planted in Brazil, with average productivities ranging from 18 to 28 m³/ha/year; however, there are sites and handlings in which such productivity surpasses 40 m³/ha/year. This large variability, per se, warns to a potential in gain of productivity, provided that the factors restricting it are identified, which may be technical (genotypes and nutrition) or operating (quality in ground preparation, plating and cultural tracts).

In addition, cultivation of the Pinehas been diversified in terms of species, origins and clones, and expanding its planting areas, handling forms (soil preparation, manuring, spacing and parings). More than never, Pine planting effectively produces multi-products, such as production of wood for fibers (pulp, sheets and MDF), forsawmill (different gauges), solid products, resin and wastes, which have been used as biomassor organic substrates.

In order to rapidly and efficiently enhance knowledge on Pine cultivation, in terms of production and sustainability, the PPPIB (Potential Productivity of Pine in Brazil) was setup in 2006 gathering efforts from several forest companies operating in Pine forest handling. Currently, the project is comprised of 7 forest companies: Arauco, Arborgen, Caxuana, Juliana, Klabin, Masisa, Rigesa, Renova, in addition to North Carolina University (Raleigh, USA) and Universidade de São Paulo itself, with its experimental station in Itatinga, SP.

The projects established aim to study the processes controlling growth of subtropical Pine (Pinus taeda) and tropical Pine (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis), at the leaf, tree and forest level, under the effect of different hydrous regimes, nutritional regimes, handling systems (without and with paring) and operating quality (planting stratification). However, PPPIB also investigates the issues concerning interactions of these forests to the environment, as regards sustainability of the production and its association with use and efficiency of using the natural resources, notably water and nutrients. All these issues were structured so as to be answered by using experimental designs and appropriate locations.

Thus, in 2007 and 2008, implementations of the three experimental designs guiding the program were consolidated:
Design 1: Experimental areas for fertilization, irrigation and handling;
Design 2: Twin parts of fertilization and handling;
Design 3: Experimental area of stratification/dominancewith clonal planting.

Distribuição dos sítios experimentais

History

As of 2005, Pine companies hired IPEF to establish research in the aspects related to the limitations of the forest productivity (edaphic or climatic), their handling and assurance of sustainability of the plantations of such genre under subtropical and tropical conditions of the country. After 2 preparatory meetings, In July and November 2005, in Arapoti and Telêmaco Borba, PR, PPPIB was consolidated in January 2006.

Thus, PPPIB was comprised of forest or technology companies, having in total around 300.000 ha of Pines planted in the States of PR, SC, SP and MG and 1 biotechnology company. The current members of PPPIB are: Arauco, Arborgen, Caxuana, Juliana, Klabin, Masisa, Rigesa and Renova, in addition to NCSU and USP with its Experimental Station.

In 2008, the IV Annual Meeting was held and the 3 experimental designs were consolidated as well as their scientific methodologies. In such meetings, there was participation of researchers and lecturers from USP, the companies, and other research institutions such as USDA Forest Service, the Federal University of Paraná and Embrapa Florestas, showing the potential interaction of the program. After project consolidation, PPPIB has held annual meetings for discussion of the results and development of all installed designs.

In addition to the annual meetings, the PPPIB project took, between May and June 2011, its first Technical Trip to Southeastern USA, visiting four universities and several commercial and experimental planting areas of Pine, located in Southeastern USA (Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia). There, a great interaction between the PPPIB members and North-American researchers and professionals occurred.

Goals

PPPIB was designed asa project aimed at understanding and quantifying the processes controlling productivity of Pine and its interactions to the environment, and has 4 large goals:
Productivity Goal: Estimating potential productivity and efficiency in using resources (water, light and nutrients) for 1 subtropical species (P. taeda) and 1 tropical species (P. caribaea var. hondurensis) of Pine in Brazil;
Carbon Goal: Determining the effect of hydrous, nutritional regime and handling in the balance, allocation and stock of C in the Pine forests;
Stratum Goal: Testing how structure and dominance in a forest affects its productivity (fiber, no paring, pulpwood x solid, with paring, utility) and clonal, uniform and heterogeneous planting;
Photosynthesis Goal: Characterizing the photosynthesis rates and their variations by genetic, climatic and edaphic effects.

So as to meet such goals, an experimental network, with 3 basic designs was discussed and established, as previously mentioned.

In methodological terms, the determinations of the carbon balance shall be made through the method of estimating the Primary Gross Productivity (GPP) by adding its constituents: Primary Liquid Productivity of the Air Part (ANPP) + Respiration of the Air Part (R) + Total C Allocated in the Root (TBCA). The quantic efficiencies shall be determined based on the photosynthetically active light intercepted and photosynthesis campaigns.




Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais
Via Comendador Pedro Morganti, 3500 - Bairro Monte Alegre
CEP: 13415-000 - Piracicaba, SP - Brasil
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